Here are the: Basics of Information Technology in 20201

Keyboard Showing the layout


Overview We are living in the basics of Information Age of a Global Village today . That means Information is the key factor in this era and it is rightly said that ” Information is the mos precious commodity of today’s day to day businesis basics of Information ” . Everything evolves around it whether it is education , medicine , history , geographical phenomena , sports , research or business are the basics if Information . You name the system and Information is there to play a key role in its functionality and existence Information can be defined as the facts and figures about anything basics of Information. The know how about any object that exists and plays its role in any system .The system is any identified and known work that accepts data / information into itsell , manipulates in the shape of certain output ( s ) and delivers so that it becomes useful and meaningful.

And precisely , that is what is known as ” Data processing ” or ” Computing ” , for which we need a computer to accomplish the task . Few years back , this accomplished task was available to the computer users clients in a prescribed locality only .

That locality could be his own office or organization . But with the advent of Communication technology are the basics of Information , our globe has become virtually a one – community area Le Global Village. The organizations expanded to remote cities and countries and it was felt to make the data / information and the ultimate accomplished task available to them where ever they are . There came communication technology to our rescue and a new term emerged ie . ” Information Technology that can be precisely defined as ” Information.


 Technology is the technology that merges computing with high speed communication links carrying data in the form of text , sound , images , video etc are the basics of Information ” from place to place over this global village . For this purpose , the computer systems are networked in such a way that the data / information stored / processed on them is always available from anywhere , at any place , at any moment . Thus , the computer users are almost always sharing and exchanging their information in such a manner as if they are sitting in a drawing room face to face . So in short , Information an Technology enables the heterogeneous types of industries and institutions to a phenomenon known as digital convergence .

The digital convergence is the technological merger of various industries / enterprises through some electronic Badgets that exchange information between them . The industries are computers . clectronics , telecommunications , and mass media ele It has tremendous significance un modern scenario are the basics of Information . It means that from a common electronic base , information can be ommunicated to any shape that the users are accustomed to see ie photographs movies , audio , graphical shapes , text form , analog diagrams etc.

Modern Scenario

The modern impact of basics of information  broadened the bene ed fiber optie , mobile phone , machine multimedia / hypermedia , e – commerce , enbune in the aplications of this shit from single , isolated technologies to a umilia digital comergence and enabling de computer users to experience u beaniful fantasties of computer utilization in the fields like : 10 Mial Intelligence Web based Applications commere , M – commerce ( Mobile Commerce ) per Animation Mandia , Hyper – media Distributed Computing There are numerous fields of computer applications , but we need not to the details all those as it is beyond the scope of this book . What we need where is that the Information Technology has brought about a revolution in e style are the basics of Information. We may call it the Computer Revolution . Information Revolutio xations Revolution , Revolution , Multi – media Revolution whatsoever . So it is beyond any doubt that today , we are living in a society that making use of information Highway ” which is heading towards a real future ” Glee of me maman history Hardware and Software computer is a machine that can be programmed to accept data in mouseful information ( output ) , and store it away in a secondary store be safekeeping or later reuse ” We have four words in this definition why ale importance in the whole computing process Le machine program atpat . By conventions , machine is called hardware , whereas a program software in the discussion of computer science . Here , input and cry e part of the machine that can now be called as a complete Com en So , to function , a computer system requires four main aspects of smpul processing . output and storage ( figure 1 ) . The harde . ble for these four areas , operates as described below : Impu devices accepe data in a form that the computer can use , and by sends to the processing unit The processor ( CPU ) , has the electronic circuitry that manipulate dia ato the form of useful formation . The processor actually ex the instructions ( Programs in a logical sequence Dame devices show as the pressed data ie information in the shap are the basics of Information. Storage usually means secondary storage , which consists of second storage devices , such as hard disk floppy diskettes , CDs etc. which store data and programs outside the computer itself . These dev actually supplement main memory , which can hold data and progr only temporarily Secondary store devin is dit and program Secondary Storage Central Processing un ( CPU ) executa the instructions Caput device police send dat process data available processing Memory holds data und programs tempomat laput Processing Output Figure 1.1 : A generalized Computing Environment 1.1.1 Hardware Devices Following are the main hardware devices in any computer system : Input Devices i.e. Keyboards , Mouse , Microphones etc. Output Devices i.e. Printers , Speakers , Monitors etc. Main Memory comprising of RAM and ROM 1/0 Device i.e. Driver , Terminals , Touch Screen etc. Secondary Memory i.e. Hard disk , Floppy disk , Compact disk , Tape Inter – connectors i.e. Cables , Ports , Buses etc. Networking Devices i.e. Modem , Bridge , Router etc. 1.1.2 Software Classification Software can be classified into following main two categories : System Software Application Software  are the basics of Information.




System software is used to control the usage and allocation of different hardware components and embles the other application program to execute . For example , Operating Systems Utility Programs ( Backup / Restore ) Driver The system software may be a combination of many such programa Application Software : Application software is the software that has been developed to solve a specific problem or to provide audio , video , multimedia entertainment to the users . It may be categorized as under Custom – built Packaged Custom – built software : This is the software that is designed and developed for a particular customer . The custom – built software is discussed in detail in the section 1.6 ( Systems Development )


Packaged software : This software is the kind of off – the – shelf programs a components , developed for sale to the potential software developers / users for their use The examples are : MS – Word , MS – Power point . Personal Oracle etc few of these an discussed in the coming chapters . 1.2 Input and Output devices According to the definition given in the section 1.2 above , we need some device ( s ) to enter the data into the computer ( Input devices ) and some device ( s ) See the outcome ( or processed information ) of the computer ( Output devices ) . Both  are discussed as below : 1.2.1 Input devices Sometimes , the data is entered directly to the computer and sometime indirectly . In the first case , the data goes directly to the computer from the source and in the second case ; we have to carry out some intermedia handling . In either case the task is to gather data to be processed by computer  are the basics of Information. There are three general types of input hardware , namely : Keyboards Pointing devices Source data – entry devices Keyboard : The keyboard may look like a typewriter keypad to which som special keys have been added . The keys normally available on the keyboard are Numeric , Alphabetic , Function and additional Special – purpose key are the basics of Information


shows the complete layout of an extended keyboard on a person computer . It has some additional keys between the main keypad and  the mumerie keys and status is in the upper right on this keyboard is also called QWERTY which describes the begins the top row of alphabet etter Function Keys : The Rinction keys are an easy way to give certain to the computer are basics of Information . The particular software we use define what each and key does Main Keyboard : The main keyboard includes the familiares finden typewriter keypad , as well as some special command keys . The keys have different uses / effects that depend on the soil ware being used are the basics of Information . Some of the most common uses are listed here 101 – Rey Enhanced Keyboard Layout extra button and cys are based on this layout Main Keyboard 1 ) .

Keyboard Showing the layout

 – key ” Enhanced ” keyboard , showing the layout of the various key groups . Esc The Escape key is used in different ways by different programs , often it allows to escape to the previous screen of the program The Tab key , is used to tab across the screen and set to stop as on a typewriter Tab Caps Lock When the Caps Lock key is pressed upper case letters are produced Numbers and Symbols are not affected The number or symbol shown on the bottom of a key is still produced When the Caps Lock is pressed the status light under ” Caps Lock ” lights up

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